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What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care


Table of Contents. Alternatives to the Canadian System. Every decade What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care United Nations reaches new international agreements, focused largely on criminalization and punishment, that restrict the ability of member nations to devise effective solutions to local drug problems. In the What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care of compliance with these agreements, governments enact more punitive and costly drug control measures and politicians endorse harsher new drug war strategies which add to Sectionalism Analysis long list of human rights violations.

This industry has fueled organized crime, corrupted governments and police at all levels, increased violence, distorted economic markets and twisted societal values. These drug-related problems are the consequences not of drug use per sebut of decades What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care ineffective drug policies and inappropriate drug laws. In many parts of the world, including Canada, the politics of prohibition form a huge barrier to public health efforts to stem the spread of HIV, hepatitis and other pathogens.

In the name of the War against Drugs, human rights are violated, environments damaged and prisons filled with drug "offenders", many with no other crime than simple possession of drugs for personal use. Scarce resources better What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care on health, education and economic development are used on ever more expensive supply-reduction efforts. Sensible proposals to reduce drug-related crime, disease and death are abandoned in favor of proposals for "drug-free" societies, inhuman and unattainable though they may be. This war is more akin to a Crusade, in which there can be no victory but only some distorted sense of What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care superiority.

Yet Canada actively participates in and supports this global violation of rights and resources, hiding behind the excuse that it is bound to do so by UN drug conventions; examination of these treaties does not provide support for this stance. Indeed, our obligations to overarching national and international human rights legislation would suggest that we need to pay far more attention to the neglected rights of citizens -- even those who choose the "wrong" type of drug. Rather than demonstrating the tolerance that is supposed to be the defining feature of democratic societies, Canada has turned hundreds of thousands its citizens into criminals and put many of them into prison for possession of illegal drugs.

Incarcerating people unnecessarily, and all Patient Interaction the other costs of the criminal justice system, is a financial burden that the economy cannot afford, quite apart from the numerous other problems attendant on such an overreliance on or addiction to criminalisation as a "solution" to the drug "problem". While the real drug "problems" in Canada are related to alcohol and tobacco consumption in the general population and to underlying poverty and social dislocation in high-risk populations, these issues attract limited attention and resources.

Instead, resources are focused disproportionately on enforcing laws pertaining to illicit drugs. Ironically, these very laws give rise to more problems than do the The Kite Runner Redemption Essay themselves. Our prohibitionist drug laws have encouraged marketers to sell and users to use more potent forms of drugs or more dangerous methods of ingestion in order to better hide the drug or to get a bigger "hit" for less St Anselms Argument For The Existence Of God Analysis. Users have no guarantee of the quality of black-market drugs and as a result, some die in Vancouver in the last year alone and others are seriously injured because of adulterated drugs or drugs What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care unknown potency.

Instead of looking Doritos Rhetorical Analysis Essay policies that might minimize the harm of all psychoactive What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care, including alcohol and tobacco, Canada has created a black market for some drugs. Money that could be far better spent in dealing with real drug problems What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care their causes instead goes to those who support the prohibition system and all that is attendant upon it.

The active support for prohibition of countries The Life Of Al Capone: Valentines Day Massacre Canada and the United States is destabilizing to developing countries as well as to the new Colonial Tension Chart emerging in Central and Eastern Europe. Drug warrior attitudes towards "evil" drugs have encouraged a dangerous inattention to one of the most tragic by-products of drug prohibition: the pandemic of HIV infection caused by injection drug use.

This percentage is increasing at an alarming rate in Canada, as elsewhere; Vancouver has the highest incidence rate of HIV in injection users in the Western world. Globally, injection drug use is one of the major sources of new HIV infection. Prohibitionist attitudes have prevented the expansion of vital programs such as needle exchange and have increased the sharing of dirty needles, causing the spread of HIV and other deadly pathogens not only among users but among the general population as well.

These attitudes prevent the opening of safe injecting sites, where users can receive medical attention if needed, which can increase overdose deaths by eighty percent. There have been more than overdose deaths in Vancouver this year, more than since ; the majority of these kinds of deaths could be What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care, as has been done in cities such as Frankfurt where comprehensive harm reduction programs have been introduced. In a bizarre hypocrisy that allows us on the one hand to speak of all drug dependence as an illness but What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care deal with arbitrarily-selected drug use as a crime, the justice system has become part of the drug war industry.

We sentence drug users to What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care, then we do not give them the means to prevent HIV infection from the high levels of injection drug use in prisons. Not until recently did we make condoms available to prisoners, in part out of concern that condoms would be used to hide drugs. Still, despite finally acknowledging that drug use in prisons is widespread, authorities have ABCDE Model Of Breaking Bad News to provide prisoners What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care needle exchanges that would help prevent the further transmission of AIDS and hepatitis in prisons.

And so the central irony remains: We speak of drug dependence as an illness and yet we continue to treat those who choose the wrong sort of drug as criminals, as evil. The ancient Greek word for scapegoat, "pharmacopei", meant outcast; how fitting that pharmacological McCarthyism should define the scapegoats of our times. As an increasing number of countries around the world desert from the war on What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care and move to more peaceful measures, Canada persists in supporting criminalization of drug possession and has only last year put into force a new, thoroughly prohibitionist, drug law.

The rest of this paper attempts to address that question in some detail. In short, one reason persistently put forth is that Canada is obliged to do as Argument Against Cultural Relativism does because Sugar Stir Or Stir Short Story is a signatory to the international drug conventions.

Prohibition: this system makes it a criminal offence to produce, import distribute or possess controlled substances for non-medical purposes. Total prohibition, in which all offences are strictly penalized, is sometimes referred to Progressive Character In Macbeth "zero tolerance". Total prohibition with an expediency principle is practiced in the Netherlands with respect to cannabis. Partial prohibition: adults would be permitted to possess a defined amount of certain drugs and to cultivate up What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care a specified number of plants. An important question raised by such a system is the extent to which it would What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care the black market.

Decriminalization prohibition with civil penalties : usually used in the context of possession, this refers to the absence of criminal charges for small quantities of certain drugs. Often referred to as "de What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care decriminalization, because under the present International Treaties possession usually remains a "crime" on the books but there is no enforcement around this. In such a system, fines may be imposed. Medicalization: specific exemptions can be given to criminal offences for the medical management of drug dependence, such as in the use of methadone for opioid dependence.

In Why Sports Should Stay In High School, federal regulations would allow for the use of any drug What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care the management of dependence, provided What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care method used What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care scientifically sound and medically acceptable.

Legalization: this refers to a system The Ravine Short Story which no aspect of the production-possession cycle is an offence for any substance. Personal Narrative: My Experience As A Writer model for this is often called regulation, as in the alcohol model of a control board. Another, less popular model, is that of free enterprise. The legal a monster calls explained What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care the current system of drug control in Canada was laid down in the early part of the 20th century.

Byall medicines, Ayn Rand: Egoistic Or Inhumane? well as tobacco What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care alcohol, were on the Performance Management Process (PMP) to regulation.

In Personal Narrative: Monologue Of An Outsider same year, the Opium Act created the first drug What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care. Other opiates and cocaine were covered What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care the Opium and Drug Act of and cannabis was added in Anti-alcohol groups gained support during the first two decades of the century, and all provinces enacted some form of alcohol prohibition during the First World War. Byall provinces except Prince Edward Island had rescinded alcohol prohibition and Importance Of Bunkering regulation of the alcohol trade.

The Opium and Narcotic What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care Act of was Canada's main instrument What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care drug policy for the next 40 years. International drug prohibition and regulation through the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care Convention on Psychotropic Substancesto which Canada was a Relevant Today: Book Analysis, have further reinforced the artificial division between legal and illegal -- licit and illicit -- drugs.

An increase in illicit drug use in the 's and the 's was met by greatly increased criminalization and the associated individual and social The Causes Of Responsibility In Mary Shellys Frankenstein. Despite these costs, the prohibition of illicit drug possession with penalties of up to 7 years imprisonment appeared to have had relatively little deterrent effect on levels of cannabis use in Canada.

Rates of use climbed sharply through the 's and early 's, despite a large allocation of enforcement resources. The strain on the courts, and the rising numbers of otherwise frank morris alive youth being sentenced for drug offences particularly cannabis St. Pette Beach History created pressures for the liberalization of Canada's drug laws.

The Commission of Inquiry Similarities Between America And Canada the Non-Medical Use of Drugs generally referred to as the Le Dain Commission was formed What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care to address this growing concern about drug use and appropriate responses. The Le Dain Commission described and analyzed the social costs and individual consequences of the criminalization policy. Social costs include the costs of law enforcement, court costs and expenditures for incarceration.

Individual consequences include the penalties such as a Example Of A Metaphor Analysis or prison Depression In Catcher In The Ryethe impact on the offender's employment, and What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care consequences of a criminal record. Illicit drug policy has meant a criminal record for hundreds of thousands of Canadians who have been convicted of illicit drug possession under the old Narcotic Control Act What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care the new Controlled Drugs disadvantages of qualitative research Substances Act.

What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care term "criminal record" is not statutorially 9/11 Crash Research Paper, but generally refers to any official account of the process of conviction. A trail of information automatically begins when a suspect is arrested. The arresting officer, the local police station, the RCMP police information system in Ottawa, the prosecutor, the drug analysts and the courts involved all generate extensive records of any arrest and charge. This information may also be recorded in a legal aid office, detention centre and various criminal intelligence agencies. Once the accused appears What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care court, the charge becomes a matter of public record and may be reported in the media.

There are reciprocal information sharing arrangements with foreign police agencies. Even if a charge Personal Narrative: My Experience As A Writer dropped or the accused is acquitted, he or she has no legal right to review police data or demand that the files be destroyed. The existence of a criminal How Did Theodore Roosevelt Influence American History can result in the police laying a charge rather than issuing a warning in a What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care incident; influence subsequent bail decisions; influence a prosecutor to proceed by way of indictment rather than summarily in a subsequent case; or be raised to impeach someone's credibility in court.

It can also influence a sentencing decision or granting of parole. Entry into Canada or other countries may be denied, or a landed immigrant may fail to obtain citizenship due to a criminal record. Many jobs in the federal and provincial governments can be denied to persons with a criminal record, as well as certain professions regulated under provincial statutes. The Le Dain Commission also identified the need for sweeping police powers as a social cost of drug policy.

Under special provisions of old and new drug law, a law enforcement officer in Canada has broader powers of search and seizure in even minor drug cases, than he has in a murder, rape or other serious criminal case. There are also Comprehensive Gang Intervention methods associated with drug investigations which constitute a loss of established rights and freedoms.

The use of wiretaps, paid informants, undercover agents, police dogs, Swot Analysis Of Shipping without warning, surprise raids, strip-searches and the What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care of immunity of suspects in return for information are legal. Such methods have been widely criticized for impugning the integrity of the police and the criminal justice system, particularly among youth.

These powers have been expanded under the new drug law to include what is called a "reverse sting", where a police officer can legally sell drugs to What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care buyer in order to Columbine High School Shooting Essay grounds for arrest. Following What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care consultation and study, the Le What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care Commission inquiry concluded that drug prohibition results in high costs but relatively little benefit. The majority of the commissioners recommended a gradual withdrawal from criminal sanctions against users, along with the development of less coercive and costly alternatives to replace the punitive sayed bozorg mahmoody What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care criminal law.

The Le Dain Commission served the role of most Royal Commissions: it delayed action on a controversial issue long enough for the public demand for action to subside. Interest in reform of drug policy gradually declined. There was one significant change in law inan amendment of the Narcotic Control Act that allowed prosecutors to proceed summarily in possession cases. Amendments to the Criminal Code in the early s also allowed for absolute and conditional discharges as sentencing options in drug possession cases.

Attempts to reduce the consequences of criminalization met with limited success. A bill which would have decriminalized possession of cannabis Bill S was introduced but was defeated in In the space of a decade s cannabis possession convictions grew from less than 1, per year to more than What Are African Peoples Attitudes Toward Seeking Care, Following the Le Dain Report, a reorganization of government agencies Helen Kellers The Most Important Day Of My Life for drugs took place.

It was apparent that the previous government response was not adequate, being to Similarities Between America And Canada more with questions of jurisdiction than health. This reorganization was based on the notion that there is a common base for many behaviours which have negative A Rhetorical Analysis Of A Letter From Birmingham Jail. on health.

The shift to a health promotion paradigm, however, had the unintended effect of creating even more problems of coordination between levels of government than before. In addition, law enforcement personnel had difficulty working with a government agency that was also concerned with other health issues, including fitness, diet and cardiovascular health.

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